yak titʸu titʸu yak tiłhini - Northern Chumash

The yak titʸu titʸu yak tiłhini tribe of indigenous Northern Chumash were the earliest residents of the central coast of California whose homeland can be in general described as the San Luis Obispo County region. They are considered as one of the most famous Indian tribes in America.

Geography

We acknowledge that the land on which Cal Poly sits carries the heritage and culture of the Indigenous People of San Luis Obispo County, the yak titʸu titʸu yak tiłhini, Northern Chumash tribe. Many other tribes comprise the Northern Chumash that extends from Point Conception to Ragged Point and as far East as Carrizo Plains. The Chumash people’s first settlement was in Santa Barbara Bay.

 

Timeline

  • 1542- Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo from Spain makes the first European contact with the Chumash people, claiming the land for Spain.
  • 1770- Spanish start settling on the territory of the Northern Chumash.
  • 1790’s- The Spanish began forcibly removing the Northern Chumash from their villages and forcing them to work as slaves under Spanish missions.
  • 1796-1823- The Chumash are transferred to missions: San Luis Obispo Mission, Mission La Purisma, Mission Santa Ynez, Mission Santa Barbara, Mission San Buenaventura.
  • 1833: Cholera and malaria epidemics break out, killing many Chumash people.
  • 1848- California is returned to the United States following the Treaty of Guadalupe.
  • 1848: The white settlers and gold prospectors brought more diseases to the Indigenous People (including the Chumash) who settled in the neighboring areas of the westward trails.
Indigenous Land Territories, Northern Chumash, San Luis Obispo County

Chumash Life

  • tʔɨnɨsmuʔ tiłhinkʔtitʸu is the language of the people of tiłhini. They use the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to express their sounds.
  • The Chumash ate seafood, hunted on the land, gathered various wild plants, and made acorn mush with the Coast Live Oak.
  • The tomol-plank canoe was used for fishing and transportation. This style of watercraft, as far back as 1,300 years ago, suggests that this was the earliest use of this type of boat in the Pacific and possibly even the New World. These plank canoes were used to reach the Channel Islands and other locations along the coast (Gamble, 2002).
  • The Chumash were known for their baskets specifically coiled baskets which had simple designs.

 

Northern Chumash today:

Despite tremendous death and often time forced assimilation of Indigenous Peoples, the Chumash culture has survived and is in the midst of an unprecedented revival.

The yak titʸu titʸu yak tiłhini Northern Chumash Tribe develops educational programs for the community and assists the community in increasing their awareness of the Northern Chumash culture. They are currently using land in Los Osos to hold a sustainable urban farm and are pursuing the creation of a Chumash Heritage National Marine Sanctuary along the coast.

References and Resources

Northern Chumash tribal council – https://northernchumash.org/

Official website for the yak titʸu titʸu yak tiłhini tribe of the Northern Chumash Indigenous people – http://www.yttnorthernchumash.org/

Gamble, L.H., 2002. Archaeological Evidence for the Origin of the Plank Canoe in North America. American Antiquity 67, 301–315.. doi:10.2307/2694568

https://web.archive.org/web/20150405180630/http://www.sbnature.org/research/anthro/Chumash/daily.htm

http://theamericanhistory.org/history-chumash-indian-tribe.html